Types of Exosomes
Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles that are secreted by various types of cells. These vesicles play a crucial role in intercellular communication, as they can transfer proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids between cells. The composition of exosomes can vary depending on the cell type they originate from and the physiological state of the cell.
How Do Exosomes Come About?
The process of harvesting exosomes involves several steps. Initially, the parent cells are cultured in a suitable medium under controlled conditions. Over time, these cells release exosomes into the surrounding environment. To harvest exosomes, the culture medium or bodily fluid is collected and subjected to a series of centrifugation steps.
How Are Exosomes Extracted?
Centrifugation is a widely used method to separate exosomes from other cellular debris and larger vesicles. The collected medium is first centrifuged at a low speed to remove cells and large cell fragments. The resulting supernatant is then subjected to a higher-speed centrifugation step to pellet the exosomes.
After centrifugation, the exosome pellet is carefully resuspended in a buffer solution. This resuspended exosome sample can then be further purified using techniques such as ultracentrifugation, size exclusion chromatography, or density gradient separation. These purification steps help to isolate exosomes from any remaining contaminants.
It is worth noting that exosome harvesting can also be performed using alternative methods like filtration, immunoaffinity capture, and microfluidics-based techniques. Each method has its advantages and limitations, and the choice of technique depends on the specific research objectives and available resources.
What's In Exosomes?
Exosomes are primarily composed of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. The lipid composition of exosomes includes phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, sphingomyelin, and cholesterol. These lipids form the lipid bilayer that surrounds the exosome and provides stability to the vesicle.
Proteins are another important component of exosomes. They can be classified into two groups: membrane proteins and luminal proteins. Membrane proteins are embedded in the lipid bilayer of the exosome, while luminal proteins are found inside the vesicle. Some common membrane proteins found in exosomes include tetraspanins, integrins, and heat shock proteins. Luminal proteins can include enzymes, signalling molecules, and cytoskeletal proteins.
Nucleic acids, such as RNA and DNA, are also present in exosomes. These nucleic acids can be either coding or non-coding RNAs. Exosomes have been shown to carry various types of RNA, including messenger RNA (mRNA), microRNA (miRNA), and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA). The presence of nucleic acids in exosomes suggests that they can transfer genetic information between cells.
In addition to lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, exosomes can also contain other molecules such as carbohydrates, metabolites, and small molecules. These molecules can have specific functions and contribute to the overall biological activity of exosomes.
In summary, exosomes are composed of lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and other molecules. The specific composition of exosomes can vary depending on the cell type and physiological conditions. Understanding the composition of exosomes is essential for unravelling their functions and potential applications in various fields, including diagnostics, therapeutics, and regenerative medicine.
Types of Exosomes
Exosomes are secreted by various cell types, including human, plant, and animal cells. Exosomes derived from different sources can carry different cargo and exert diverse biological functions.
Types of Exosomes: Human Exosomes
Human exosomes are derived from various cell types, including immune cells, stem cells, and cancer cells. They have been extensively studied for their potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Human exosomes contain a wide range of biomolecules, such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, which can reflect the status of the originating cells and provide valuable information about diseases.
Healthy donated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be harvested from a variety of MSC-rich tissues, such as placenta and bone marrow. These MSCs are then carefully extracted and culture-expanded to produce large quantities of cells. Culture-expanded MSCs can then be used in various therapeutic applications, such as regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.
Types of Exosomes: Plant Exosomes
Plant exosomes, also known as plant-derived extracellular vesicles (PDEVs), are gaining increasing attention in the field of plant biology. These vesicles are secreted by plant cells and can transport various molecules, including proteins, small RNAs, and metabolites. Plant exosomes have been shown to play a role in plant defence mechanisms, intercellular signalling, and symbiotic interactions with other organisms.
Plant exosomes are nanosized membrane vesicles that contain biomolecules and protect the plant from pathogens. A study comparing the efficacy of plant exosomes and conventional secondary metabolites. After 6 h of treatment, the exosome treatment group showed a higher transcriptome, a collection of genes that play a vital role in making proteins, change than conventional extraction of active ingredients. The exosome treatment group showed more encouraging improvement when compared to the treatment group using extracts.
Types of Exosomes: Animal Exosomes
Animal exosomes are derived from different cell types in animals, including blood cells, neurons, and epithelial cells. They have been implicated in various physiological and pathological processes, such as immune response modulation, tissue repair, and cancer progression. Animal exosomes can carry specific cargo molecules that can influence the function of recipient cells and tissues.
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